FinTech – Eine Revolution oder Evolution der traditionellen Finanzindustrie?

Im Rahmen der Digitalisierung stellen sich für Banken und Finanzinstitute neue Herausforderungen im Zahlungsverkehr und insbesondere die zunehmende Bedeutung der mobilen Endgeräte dar. Neue Herausforderungen bieten jedoch auch neue Chancen sowie die Möglichkeit, den Kunden über die reine Zahlungsabwicklung hinaus stärker unterstützend zu begleiten. Die Banken und Finanzinstitute werden auf den verändernden Markt mit neuen Akteuren aus fremden Branchen sowie veränderten Kundenanforderungen konfrontiert. In diesem Kontext müssen sie sich entscheiden, wie sie sich in diesen veränderten Märkten positionieren und welche Leistungen sie in diesem Kontext künftig anbieten wollen oder nicht. Der moderne Kunde ist mobil, wodurch er jederzeit in der Lage ist, sich über Produkte und Dienstleistungen zu informieren und diese miteinander zu vergleichen. Qualität und Service ist für den modernen Kunden ebenfalls von hoher Bedeutung. Mit der zunehmenden Digitalisierung von Geschäftsmodellen und –prozessen innerhalb Bank- und Finanzdienstleistungsbranche hält die Informationstechnologie ein weiteres Mal Einzug ein. Sogenannte FinTech-Unternehmen fokussieren genau diesen Aspekt, indem sie durch den Einsatz von IT innovative Finanzdienstleistungen kundenzentrierte und nutzerfreundliche Lösungen anbieten.  Der Begriff FinTech, Akronym für Financial Technology (zu Deutsch: Finanztechnologie), beschreibt neuartige digitale Neu- und Weiterentwicklungen im Geschäftsbereich der Finanzdienstleistungen. Hierbei handelt es sich um technologisch getriebene Finanz­innovationen, die in neuen Finanzinstrumenten, -dienstleistungen oder -intermediären resultieren. Diese lösen Teile aus der Wertschöpfungskette traditioneller Finanzintermediäre heraus, automatisieren diese und kombinieren sie neu. Bei den Produkten kann es sich dabei sowohl Lösungen für Privatkunden (Business to Consumer: B2C), Firmenkunden (Business to Business: B2B) oder für Privatpersonen (Consumter-to Consumer: C2C) handeln, als auch um Backoffice-Anwendungen oder um alternative Lösungen für Kernfunktionen traditioneller Finanz­inter­mediäre (z. B. Kreditvergabe, Zahlungsverkehr oder Vermögens­verwaltung), welche nicht auf einem festen Anwendungsbereich oder auf ein bestimmtes Kundensegment festgelegt sind. Sie sind sowohl im Privatkunden- als auch im Geschäftskundenbereich zu finden. FinTechs sind meist junge, agile und innovative Start-Up Unternehmen, die mit Hilfe technologiebasierter Systeme spezialisierte und besonders kundenorientierte Finanzdienstleistungen anbieten. In den nächsten Jahren wird dieser weltweite Trend ungefähr ein Drittel aller bisherigen Bankerträge in Deutschland gefährden. Nicht nur für in FinTech-Unternehmen  bietet Paradigmenwechsel ein großes Potenzial , sondern auch für Banken neue Chancen: Banken haben die Möglichkeit Teil der digitalen Transformation zu sein, um es selbst vorantreiben, neue Ertragsquellen erschließen und sich an die Spitze der Entwicklung setzen.

 

Geschäftsbereiche von FinTech-Unternehmen

FinTechs lassen sich in mind. fünf Geschäftsbereiche gliedern.

  1. Der erste Geschäftsbereich beschreibt die Banken- und die Versicherungsindustrie sowie die unterschiedlichen Sektoren der Finanzindustrie.
  2. Ein zweiter betrifft den fachlichen Anwendungsbereich, wobei sich die meisten FinTech Start-up-Unternehmen häufig auf einen der Bereiche Zahlen, Absichern, Anlegen, Vorsorgen, Finanzieren oder Beraten konzentrieren. Weitere Beispiele sind etwa noch mobile Bezahllösungen oder Social-Trading-Lösungen für den Anlagebereich.
  3. Bei dem dritten Bereich handelt es sich um das adressierte Kundensegment. Dazu gehören Anwendungen für das Peer-to-Peer-Darlehen oder Lending im Retail Banking oder elektronische Marktplätze für Unternehmensfinanzierungen für das Corporate Banking gehören.
  4. Eine vierte Unterscheidung betrifft die Interaktionsform, bei welcher etwa Community-Banking Ansätze für den C2C-Bereich oder Online Portfolio Management-Systeme im B2C-Bereich anzutreffen sind.
  5. Fünftens unterscheiden sich die Ansätze hinsichtlich ihrer Positionierung gegenüber Finanzdienstleistern. Eine erste Form sind von Banken oder Versicherungen selbst angebotenen Lösungen wie etwa Persona Finance Management-Systeme, während ein zweiter Typ auf kooperative oder konkurrierende Angebote gegenüber Banken oder Versicherungen fokussiert.

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